2009 SFB Workshop Invited Presentation: Incorporating Hydroxyapatite and Porosity in PEEK for Orthopaedic and Spine Applications

    • Reference:
    • Roeder R. Incorporating Hydroxyapatite and Porosity in PEEK for Orthopaedic and Spine Applications. Transactions of the Society for Biomaterials, 2009.
    • Keywords:
    • PEEK, PEKK, HA, Hydroxyapatite, CaP, Porosity
    • Permissions:
    • The PDF handout of the conference presentation is made available on with the permission of the authors.

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Ryan Roeder from the University of Notre Dame has reviewed the techniques of incorporating HA and porosity into PEEK for orthopedic and spinal applications. Bioactivity has been conferred to PEEK by the incorporation of calcium phosphate, typically hydroxyapatite (HA) but also Bioglass and tricalcium phosphate, as a coating or filler. Coatings have been applied directly using plasma spray or indirectly using surface treatment to induce apatite deposition in simulated body fluid. A larger number of investigations have studied the use of calcium phosphate fillers to reinforce PEEK. This concept was predated by the pioneering work of W. Bonfield and colleagues to reinforce high density polyethylene (HDPE) with HA. However, unlike PEEK, the mechanical properties of HDPE limited application to non-load-bearing implants. PEEK biomaterials offer a wide variety of opportunities for basic research and product development, which span across materials processing, nano- and microstructural characterization, surface engineering, mechanical behavior, implant design and osteointegration.