Researchers from Prince of Wales Hospital in Australia investigated bone ongrowth and fusion outcomes of PEEK/HA as compared with natural PEEK in a cervical fusion model. Incorporating HA into the PEEK matrix resulted in more direct bone apposition as opposed to the fibrous tissue interface with PEEK alone in the bone ongrowth as well as interbody cervical fusions. No adverse reactions were found at the implant-bone interface for either material.
Researchers from the University of Leeds performed a systematic review of the literature related to the biological response of PEEK wear particles. They found that wear particles produced by PEEK-based bearings were, in almost all cases, in the phagocytozable size range (0.1-10 microm). The studies that evaluated the biologic response to PEEK-based particles generally found cytotoxicity to be within acceptable limits relative to the UHMWPE control, but inconsistent when inflammatory cytokine release was considered.